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Товар добавлен в корзину. Продолжить покупки Оформить заказ. The excerpts are typically the most technically challenging parts and solos from the orchestral literature. Orchestral auditions are typically held in front of a panel that includes the conductor , the concertmaster , the principal player of the section for which the auditionee is applying, and possibly other principal players.

The most promising candidates from the first round of auditions are invited to return for a second or third round of auditions, which allows the conductor and the panel to compare the best candidates. Performers may be asked to sight read orchestral music.

The final stage of the audition process in some orchestras is a test week , in which the performer plays with the orchestra for a week or two, which allows the conductor and principal players to see if the individual can function well in an actual rehearsal and performance setting. There are a range of different employment arrangements. The most sought-after positions are permanent, tenured positions in the orchestra. Orchestras also hire musicians on contracts, ranging in length from a single concert to a full season or more.

Contract performers may be hired for individual concerts when the orchestra is doing an exceptionally large late-Romantic era orchestral work, or to substitute for a permanent member who is sick. A professional musician who is hired to perform for a single concert is sometimes called a "sub". Some contract musicians may be hired to replace permanent members for the period that the permanent member is on parental leave or disability leave.

Historically, major professional orchestras have been mostly or entirely composed of male musicians. The first female members hired in professional orchestras have been harpists. Finally, "after being held up to increasing ridicule even in socially conservative Austria, members of the orchestra gathered [on 28 February ] in an extraordinary meeting on the eve of their departure and agreed to admit a woman, Anna Lelkes, as harpist.

Orchestras play a wide range of repertoire ranging from 17th-century dance suites , 18th-century divertimentos to 20th-century film scores and 21st-century symphonies. Orchestras have become synonymous with the symphony , an extended musical composition in Western classical music that typically contains multiple movements which provide contrasting keys and tempos. Symphonies are notated in a musical score , which contains all the instrument parts.

The conductor uses the score to study the symphony before rehearsals and decide on their interpretation e. Orchestral musicians play from parts containing just the notated music for their instrument. A small number of symphonies also contain vocal parts e.

Orchestras also perform overtures , a term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera. These were "at first undoubtedly intended to be played at the head of a programme". Orchestras also play with instrumental soloists in concertos.

During concertos, the orchestra plays an accompaniment role to the soloist e. Orchestras also play during operas , ballets , some musical theatre works and some choral works both sacred works such as Masses and secular works. In operas and ballets, the orchestra accompanies the singers and dancers, respectively, and plays overtures and interludes where the melodies played by the orchestra take centre stage.

In the Baroque era, orchestras performed in a range of venues, including at the fine houses of aristocrats, in opera halls and in churches. Some wealthy aristocrats had an orchestra in residence at their estate, to entertain them and their guests with performances. During the Classical era, as composers increasingly sought out financial support from the general public, orchestra concerts were increasingly held in public concert halls , where music lovers could buy tickets to hear the orchestra.

Aristocratic patronage of orchestras continued during the Classical era, but this went on alongside public concerts. In the 20th and 21st century, orchestras found a new patron: governments. Many orchestras in North America and Europe receive part of their funding from national, regional level governments e. These government subsidies make up part of orchestra revenue, along with ticket sales, charitable donations if the orchestra is registered as a charity and other fundraising activities.

With the invention of successive technologies, including sound recording , radio broadcasting , television broadcasting and Internet -based streaming and downloading of concert videos, orchestras have been able to find new revenue sources. One of the "great unmentionable [topics] of orchestral playing" is " faking ", the process by which an orchestral musician gives the " With the advent of the early music movement, smaller orchestras where players worked on execution of works in styles derived from the study of older treatises on playing became common.

In the United States, the late 20th century saw a crisis of funding and support for orchestras. The size and cost of a symphony orchestra, compared to the size of the base of supporters, became an issue that struck at the core of the institution. Few orchestras could fill auditoriums, and the time-honored season-subscription system became increasingly anachronistic, as more and more listeners would buy tickets on an ad hoc basis for individual events.

Orchestral endowments and—more centrally to the daily operation of American orchestras—orchestral donors have seen investment portfolios shrink or produce lower yields, reducing the ability of donors to contribute; further, there has been a trend toward donors finding other social causes more compelling. While government funding is less central to American than European orchestras, cuts in such funding are still significant for American ensembles.

Finally, the drastic falling-off of revenues from recording, tied to no small extent to changes in the recording industry itself, began a period of change that has yet to reach its conclusion. One source of financial difficulties that received notice and criticism was high salaries for music directors of US orchestras, [25] which led several high-profile conductors to take pay cuts in recent years.

The American critic Greg Sandow has argued in detail that orchestras must revise their approach to music, performance, the concert experience, marketing, public relations, community involvement, and presentation to bring them in line with the expectations of 21st-century audiences immersed in popular culture. It is not uncommon for contemporary composers to use unconventional instruments, including various synthesizers, to achieve desired effects.

Many, however, find more conventional orchestral configuration to provide better possibilities for color and depth. Glass in particular has recently turned to conventional orchestras in works like the Concerto for Cello and Orchestra and the Violin Concerto No. Along with a decrease in funding, some U. The reduced numbers in performance are usually confined to the string section , since the numbers here have traditionally been flexible as multiple players typically play from the same part. Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.

The primary duties of the conductor are to set the tempo , ensure correct entries by various members of the ensemble, and "shape" the phrasing where appropriate. The conductor typically stands on a raised podium with a large music stand for the full score , which contains the musical notation for all the instruments and voices.

Since the midth century, most conductors have not played an instrument when conducting, [ citation needed ] although in earlier periods of classical music history, leading an ensemble while playing an instrument was common. In Baroque music from the s to the s, the group would typically be led by the harpsichordist or first violinist see concertmaster , an approach that in modern times has been revived by several music directors for music from this period.

Conducting while playing a piano or synthesizer may also be done with musical theatre pit orchestras. Communication is typically non-verbal during a performance this is strictly the case in art music , but in jazz big bands or large pop ensembles, there may be occasional spoken instructions, such as a "count in".

However, in rehearsals , frequent interruptions allow the conductor to give verbal directions as to how the music should be played or sung. Conductors act as guides to the orchestras or choirs they conduct. They choose the works to be performed and study their scores , to which they may make certain adjustments e. They may also attend to organizational matters, such as scheduling rehearsals, [30] planning a concert season, hearing auditions and selecting members, and promoting their ensemble in the media.

Orchestras, choirs , concert bands and other sizable musical ensembles such as big bands are usually led by conductors. In the Baroque music era — , most orchestras were led by one of the musicians, typically the principal first violin, called the concertmaster.

The concertmaster would lead the tempo of pieces by lifting his or her bow in a rhythmic manner. Leadership might also be provided by one of the chord-playing instrumentalists playing the basso continuo part which was the core of most Baroque instrumental ensemble pieces.

Typically, this would be a harpsichord player, a pipe organist or a luteist or theorbo player. A keyboard player could lead the ensemble with his or her head, or by taking one of the hands off the keyboard to lead a more difficult tempo change. A lutenist or theorbo player could lead by lifting the instrument neck up and down to indicate the tempo of a piece, or to lead a ritard during a cadence or ending.

In some works which combined choirs and instrumental ensembles, two leaders were sometimes used: a concertmaster to lead the instrumentalists and a chord-playing performer to lead the singers. During the Classical music period ca. In , the idea of a conductor-less orchestra was revived in post- revolutionary Soviet Union. The symphony orchestra Persimfans was formed without a conductor, because the founders believed that the ensemble should be modeled on the ideal Marxist state, in which all people are equal.

As such, its members felt that there was no need to be led by the dictatorial baton of a conductor; instead they were led by a committee , which determined tempos and playing styles. Although it was a partial success within the Soviet Union, the principal difficulty with the concept was in changing tempo during performances, because even if the committee had issued a decree about where a tempo change should take place, there was no leader in the ensemble to guide this tempo change.

In Western nations, some ensembles, such as the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra , based in New York City, have had more success with conductorless orchestras, although decisions are likely to be deferred to some sense of leadership within the ensemble for example, the principal wind and string players, notably the concertmaster. Others have returned to the tradition of a principal player, usually a violinist, being the artistic director and running rehearsal and leading concerts.

As well, as part of the early music movement, some 20th- and 21st-century orchestras have revived the Baroque practice of having no conductor on the podium for Baroque pieces, using the concertmaster or a chord-playing basso continuo performer e. Some orchestral works specify that an offstage trumpet should be used or that other instruments from the orchestra should be positioned off-stage or behind the stage, to create a haunted, mystical effect.

To ensure that the offstage instrumentalist s play in time, sometimes a sub-conductor will be stationed offstage with a clear view of the principal conductor. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, some orchestras use a video camera pointed at the principal conductor and a closed-circuit TV set in front of the offstage performer s , instead of using two conductors.

The techniques of polystylism and polytempo [32] music have led a few 20th- and 21st-century composers to write music where multiple orchestras or ensembles perform simultaneously. These trends have brought about the phenomenon of polyconductor music, wherein separate sub-conductors conduct each group of musicians. Usually, one principal conductor conducts the sub-conductors, thereby shaping the overall performance.

This way, the "sound masses" could be spacialized, as in an electroacoustic work. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Orchestra disambiguation. Large instrumental ensemble. Major methodologies. Instructional settings. School band Choir Concert band Marching band Orchestra.

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This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Woodwinds piccolo 2 flutes 2 oboes 2 soprano clarinets of which both might also play 2 Basset horns occasionally with Beethoven 2 bassoons 1 contrabassoon Brass 4 natural valveless or valved horns 2 natural or valved trumpets 3 tenor trombones of which some might play 1 alto trombone 1 bass trombone 1—2 serpents or ophicleides gradually replaced by tubas Percussion 2 timpani one player snare drum bass drum cymbals triangle tambourine glockenspiel Strings 14 violins 1 12 violins 2 10 violas 8 cellos 6 double basses 1 concert harp.

These performers are not typically permanent orchestra members. They are typically freelancers hired on contract for one or more concerts. Main article: Faking Western classical music. Main article: Conducting. Main article: Conductorless orchestra. Ludwig van Toronto.

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